New and Rising Trends in Logistics (Chapter II)

6. A blockchain is a database that stores blocks of encrypted data and then chains them together to form a chronological single source of truth for data. Digital assets are distributed rather than copied or transferred, creating an immutable record of an asset. The asset is decentralized and provides full real-time access and transparency to the public. A transparent change book preserves the integrity of the document that creates trust in the asset. Blockchain’s inherent security measures and public ledger make it a premium technology for almost any industry. Treleaven, P., Brown, RG, and Yang, D. (2017). The best-known (and perhaps most controversial) use of blockchain is cryptocurrencies. Unlike cash, crypto uses blockchain to act as both a public ledger and an advanced cryptographic security system, so online transactions are always recorded and secured. Moreover; Thanks to this technology, it is possible for logistics processes to become much more transparent. The transparent procurement process is effective in areas such as documentation, product handling, product management and product monitoring. In this way, it is expected that the processes expressed as a part of the supply chain will become transparent and accountable.

7. Data Analyze; Used in warehouse and stock method in logistics activities; The importance of utilizing Big Data in the Logistics industry has increased in recent years, as large amounts of data are generated from barcode scanners, RFID readers, telematics, GPS, software systems that manage operations, and positioning system devices in vehicles/mobile phones. Customers; They want to follow where their orders are (instantly!), expect them to be delivered on time, and never hesitate to share any comments or complaints. Therefore, we can say that the data we produce – big data – (product reviews, social media comments, likes, blogs and online comments) is reshaping this traditionally segmented industry. It is necessary to collect data and analyze this data very well in order to have information about this and many more. Lambert, D. M., & Sharma, A. (1990)

For these reasons, the logistics industry has recently started to position itself to use big data better and more efficiently. The logistics sector is one of big data and technologies; a) Operational Efficiency; (Real-Time) Route Optimization, Address Verification, Shift Planning, and Real-Time Analysis. b) Risk Planning and c) Customer Experience, matters are used.

The logistics industry is working hard to replace manual calculations with data analysis, such as Data Visualization tools and Predictive Analysis instead of instinctive feelings, in order to optimize instead of grappling with complex reports. Big data is helping the industry with accurate data-driven information to make effective business decisions, improve investment decisions, derive new strategies, and develop stronger projects and innovations.

8. Cloud Computing; The cloud is a virtual space that exists on the Internet. It is a storage space where people can place their digital resources such as software, applications and files. The cloud is virtual storage space on the internet. How does it work? Cloud computing technology allows people to use digital resources stored in virtual space through networks – usually satellite networks. It allows people to share information and applications over the internet without the restriction of their physical location. Cloud storage is not limited by the capacity of any physical device. Unlike previous storage solutions, there are no capacity limitations. This means we get better and higher storage and we don’t have to worry about upgrading a device’s memory. Today’s economy requires employees to have the knowledge to work with colleagues from multiple remote locations. Cloud computing makes it easy to share and access digital resources from anywhere in the world. This leads to better collaboration between global teams. Technology cloud computing eliminates the need for physical hardware for storage. This, in turn, reduces the capital expenditure of companies. These funds can then be allocated to innovation or research and development to open up new avenues of success.

The logistics industry is going through a major technological transformation. Other innovations such as cloud-based logistics, social media, and the internet of things take logistics in a new and different direction. Cloud computing has become a new trend driven by smart technologies such as big data and the internet of things. In logistics, under the name of “smart logistics”; It has become used in mainstream applications such as e-commerce, self-service transceiver, big data analytics, road location and distribution optimization. Intelligent logistics service platform is built based on cloud computing to collect, store and process multi-source heterogeneous aggregate data from sensors, RFID electronic tags, and vehicle terminals. Thus, open access cloud services including distribution, positioning, navigation, scheduling and other data services can be provided for logistics distribution applications. Yang, M., Mahmood, M., Zhou, X., Shafaq, S., & Zahid, L. (2017). The logistics industry is characterized by many actors that need to be integrated throughout the supply chain. This makes the use of cloud computing a very promising topic. Gomez, M., Grand, S. ve Gatziu Grivas, S. (2015).

9. The term “autonomous vehicle

refers to any machine that can move by itself or with the remote control of a human operator, as directed by software, to complete tasks. Autonomous vehicles include machines of all sizes, from delivery drones small enough to be held in an operator’s hand, to huge ocean-going ships.

How Will They Change Their Supply Chains?

Autonomous systems have the potential to reshape supply chain operations and improve performance in three key ways:

  • By helping controlled environments such as warehouses manage and process products more efficiently. Autonomous activities; may include routing, sorting, storage, tracking and packaging.
  • By increasing transportation efficiency by autonomously moving goods from factories, retail centers and distribution centers to their destinations.
  • By providing an optimally performing system through greater information gathering, sharing and integration.

COVID-19 pandemic; It has caused global supply chain disruptions in industries as diverse as healthcare, industrial manufacturing, construction and retail. The concern was not only with the unavailability of the goods/material but also with the shipping and delivery of the available goods/material. The primary problem is also the lack of human labour for delivery. This has created a growing opportunity for autonomous delivery vehicles to meet delivery demand and reduce virus spread.

Many companies are developing different types of autonomous distribution vehicles, which can be categorized as sidewalk vehicles, road delivery vans, and autonomous trucks. These companies focus on last-mile delivery as it is the most expensive part of the delivery chain, representing more than 50% of the total cost. In recent years, companies have been using autonomous mobile robots and autonomous vehicle technology to automate this step. Haas, I. ve Friedrich, B. (2017).

Last-mile delivery is always a challenge for companies across industries. With the development of autonomous vehicle technology, many industry players are now turning to autonomous solutions in the form of driverless delivery vehicles. This will not only help reduce the cost of delivery but also meet the additional demand for online deliveries.

10. Flexible logistics;

enables companies to perform supply chain operations more efficiently during periods of fluctuation in demand. Organizes and plans supply chain operations according to market demand. Elastic logistics works with the principle of pay-per-use and on-demand service for its customers. Some of the problems elastic logistics tackle are: overproduction, overstocking, half-full containers, and price volatility. In a customer-centric market, companies need to respond to consumer demands. Because consumer needs can be unpredictable, companies are looking for a solution in the form of flexible logistics to cope with these ever-changing demand rates.

to be continued...

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